Pancreatic Cancer

Cancer Site Menu

Page Forward

Table of Contents


Location of the Pancreas1

  1.  As noted above (left), the pancreas is a tapered, elongated gland located behind the stomach. 

  2.   Introduction to Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma4

  3.  Background2

  4.  Etiologic considerations:


    Cancer Site Menu

    Page Forward



    1. A.D.A.M resource:  Medical Encyclopedia

    2. McPhee, SJ Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas, Chapter 15, in Pathophysiology of Disease:  An Introduction to Clinical Medicine, 5th Editions (McPhee, SJ and Ganong, WF, eds), The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2006. on-line edition.

    3. Sun W and Haller D Pancreatic, Gastric, and Other Gastrointestinal Cancers, Chapter 201, in ACP Medicine 2004-2005 edition (Dale DC and Federman DD, editors) WebMD, New York, 2004, pp.2432-2444.

    4. Drebin JA, Sun W, Metz JM, Furth EE Carcinoma of the Pancreas in Abeloff's Clinical Oncology, 4th Edition, (Abeoff, MD, Armitage, JO, Niederhuber, JE, Kastan MB, and McKenna WG, eds) Churchill Livingsone-Elsevier,2008, pp 1595-1611.

    5. Lipkin S Research Interests .

    6. KRAS v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [ Homo sapiens ]  Entrez Gene, updated 02-Aug-2008,

    7. Zubk KM Eng C Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes Nature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2007) 4, 492-502 (; figure attribution:  Bronner M (2003) Gastrointestinal inherited polyposis syndromes. Mod Path 16: 359–365.

    8. Hruban RH Pancreatic Cancer: From Genes to Patient Care, Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 5(6), 2001, pp.583-587.

    9. Royal RE, Wolff RA, Crane CH Pancreatic Cancer in Cancer:  Principles &  Practice of Oncology (Devita Jr VT, Lawrence TS, Rosengerg SA, eds) Volters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2008, 1086-1124.

    10. Klintworth GK Ataxia telaniectasia; image courtesy of

    11. Yeo TP, Hruban, RH, Leach SD, Wilentz RE, Sohn TA, Kern SE, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Maitra A, Groggins M, Canto MI, Abrams RA, Laheru D, Jaffee EM, Hidalgo M, Yeo CJ Pancreatic Cancer Current Problems in Cancer 26(4), 2002, pp 176-225.

      11b.  Willenz RE Goggins M Redston M Marcus VA Adsay NV Sohn TA Kadkol SS Yeo CJ Chota M Zahurak M Johnson K Tascilar M Offerhaus GJA Hruban RH Kern SE Genetic, immunohistochemical, and clinical freatures of medullary carcinoma of the pancreas:  a newly described and characterized entity.  Am J Pathol. 156(5):  1641-1651.  May 2000.

      11c.  Hellerhoff  Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in magnetic resonance imaging. .

    12. The David G. Jagelman Inherited Colorectal Cancer Registries, Cleveland Clinic,

    13. EUS Imaging

    14. Endoscopic Ultrasound, Mayo Clinic

    15. ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatograpy) National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House (NDDIC), A service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH), and more generally .

    16. A.D.A.M resource:  Medical Encyclopedia, .

    17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) University of Wisconsin-Madision, General Surgery,

    18. Canto MI, Goggins M, Hruban RH, Petersen GM, Giardiello FM, Yeo C, Fishman EK, Brunne K, Axilbund J, Griffin C, Ali S, Richman J, Janannath S, Kantsevoy SV, Kallo AN. Screening for early pancreatic neoplasia in high-risk individuals:  a prospective controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 June; 4(6):  766-781.

    19. He T-C, Sparks AB, Rago C, Hermeking H, Zawel L, Da Costa LT, Morin PJ, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW Identification of c-MYC as a Target of the APC Pathway, Science 4 September 1998, Vol 281, no. 5362, pp 1509-1512.

    20. Pancreaticoblastoma (a.k.a. infantile pancreatic carcinoma) Path Consult .



    This Web-based pancreatic cancer information and teaching site is based on reference materials, that are believed reliable and consistent with standards accepted at the time of development. Possibility of human error and on-going research and development in oncology and biomedical sciences in general do not allow assurance that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete. Users should confirm the information contained herein with other sources. This site should only be considered as a teaching aid for undergraduate and graduate biomedical education and is intended only as a teaching site. Information contained here should not be used for patient management and should not be used as a substitute for consultation with practicing medical professionals. Users of this website should check that the information contained in this site is accurate and that changes have not been made in recommended either to clinical approaches or to understanding of basic disease.  Advertisements that appear on this site are not reviewed for content accuracy and it is the responsibility of users of this website to make individual assessments concerning this information.  Medical or other information  thus obtained should not be used as a substitute for consultation with practicing clinical medical, nursing, scientific professionals.